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Alexander Graham Bell مقالة عن

01 نوفمبر

THE FATHER OF THE TELEPHONE

 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL

EARLY LIFE

Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on March3rd, 1847. He was always known in his family as Aleck. He was the second son of Alexander Melville Bell. [[1]] Alexander Melville Bell (Alexander Graham Bell’s father) was Professor of Elocution and the Art of Speech. In 1858, at the age of 11, Alexander was sent away to study at the Royal Edinburgh High School.Young Alexander Graham Bell, at the age of 13, spent a year in London with his grandfather [[2]]. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study. [[3]] In 1858, at the age of 11, Aleck was sent away to study at the Royal Edinburgh High School. He chose to study Latin and Greek but had no particular interest in the formal lessons. Melville, Aleck and Edward, were taught at home by their mother, Eliza Bell. She taught the three boys the usual school subjects, such as history and mathematics, but she also gave them drawing and music lessons. [[4]] From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry and music that was encouraged by his mother. Music played a very important part in his childhood. With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family’s pianist. Bell’s mother, Eliza, was hard of hearing but became an accomplished pianist (as well as a painter), and Bell took an interest in music. [[5]] Bell’s father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell’s life’s work.[[6]]  After studying at the University of Edinburgh and University College, London, England, Bell became his father’s assistant. He taught the deaf to talk by adopting his father’s system of visible speech.

When Aleck was 11 years old, a former pupil of his father’s called Alexander Graham visited the family. Aleck liked the man’s name and, as a show of independence from his father and because his brothers had two first names, he added the name Graham to his own. From then on he was to be called Alexander Graham Bell. [[7]]

On July 11, 1877, a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1,487 of his 1,497 shares in the newly created Bell Telephone Company. [[8]] Mabel Bell, Aleck’s wife, was one of three daughters of the Boston lawyer and businessman Gardiner Greene Hubbard. She was born on 25 November 1857 and lost hearing when she was 5 years old. She married Aleck when she was 19, eleven years younger than him. They had two daughters- Elsie May, born on 8 May 1878, and Marian (Daisy), born on 15 February 1880. Later they had two sons (Edward and Robert), but both died in infancy from breathing problems. The Bell family home was located in Cambridge, Massachusetts until 1880 when Bell’s father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D.C., and later in 1882 bought a home in the same city for Bell’s family, so that they could be with Aleck’s family.

TELEGRAPH

 Bell worked mostly on three kinds of equipment: a phonoautograph, a device that would help a deaf person see a sound; a multiple telegraph, a device that could transmit two or more messages over wire at the same time; and an electric speaking telegraph, or telephone. [[9]] During Bell’s time as a teacher, he spent many evenings in his rooms trying to improve the design of the electric telegraph. The practical telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse in 1837. By 1850s it had became an important way to communicate news, business information, and the movement of railroad trains. By the 1860s, most cities had telegraph offices, and telegraph wires strung across the world. [[10]]

There was a problem with the electric telegraph that it could send only one message at a time in each direction. This meant that lines were always busy and people had to queue to send messages, so he was interested in developing this invention. He conceived the theory of the telephone: that an electric current can be made to change its force just as the pressure of air varies during sound production. In 1874 he invented a telegraph that could send several messages at once over one wire, as well as a telephonic-telegraphic receiver. [[11]] Aleck’s idea was to design a machine that could ‘read’ several messages transmitted at the same time along one wire. This would increase the number of messages the telegraph could handle, so making it much quicker and cheaper to send them. He called his machine a ‘harmonic telegraph’. Aleck’s idea for a harmonic telegraph came from his knowledge of music and sound. [[12]]

TELEPHONE

In the 1870s, two inventors Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically (the telephone). Both men rushed their respective designs to the patent office within hours of each other; Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first. Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won. The telegraph and telephone are both wire-based electrical systems, and Alexander Graham Bell’s success with the telephone came as a direct result of his attempts to improve the telegraph. [[13]]  On the day he was awarded the patent for the telephone, Aleck returned to Boston, there was still a lot more work to do on improving the telephone design. Alexander Graham Bell said in his memories about the first call: [I then shouted into the mouthpiece the following sentence:Mr. Watson-come here-I want you.To my delight he came and declared that he had heard and understood what I said] [[14]]

To help deaf children, Bell experimented in the summer of 1874 with a human ear and attached bones, magnets, smoked glass, and other things. He conceived the theory of the telephone: that an electric current can be made to change its force just as the pressure of air varies during sound production. That same year he invented a telegraph that could send several messages at once over one wire, as well as a telephonic-telegraphic receiver. Bell supplied the ideas; Thomas Watson created the equipment. Working with tuned reeds and magnets to make a receiving instrument and sender work together, they transmitted a musical note on June 2, 1875. Bell’s telephone receiver and transmitter were identical: a thin disk in front of an electromagnet (a magnet created by an electric current). [[15]]

The end of the legend 

Aleck worked on many other designs and inventions. He became especially interested in flying and designed many types of kite. One was a very light but strong design, known as a tetrahedral kite. In 1908 Aleck and his design team built an aeroplane called June Bug which went on to win the Scientific American flying trophy. They designed other successful aeroplanes, including the silver Dart. Aleck also designed a high-speed boat called a hydrofoil.

The legend Bell died on 2 August 1922 in Beinn Bhreagh, with his beloved Mabel by his side. He was 75 years old and has been busy inventing right to the end. When his coffin was lowered into his grave near the house all the telephones throughout North America fell silent for one minute as a mark of respect to the father of the telephone. Mabel, his wife, died five months later and was buried beside him at Beinn Bhreagh.

By: Al-SENAT0R

 هذه عبارة عن مقالة تجميعية عن حياة اليكسندر جراهام بيل مخترع التلفون باللغة الانجليزية مع تحيات اخوكم السيناتور


[1] Alexander Graham Bell by: Struan Reid page 6

[2] National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Biographical Memoirs by: Harolds. Osborne

page 1

[4] Alexander Graham Bell by: Struan Reid pages 6 and 7

[7] Alexander Graham Bell by: Struan Reid page 7

[10] Alexander Graham Bell by: Mary Kay Carson, Giving Voice To the World, page 42

[12] Alexander Graham Bell by: Struan Reid page 22

[14] Alexander Graham Bell by: Struan Reid page 34 (In Bell’s word)

 
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Posted by في نوفمبر 1, 2011 بوصة كتاباتي العامة

 

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